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How to implement sludge disposal from water treatment plant？
Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-10-26 Origin: Site
The disposal of sludge from water treatment plants is an important environmental issue because the sludge contains a large amount of organic matter, heavy metals and other harmful substances, which involves environmental protection, resource recovery and social health. Sludge in a water treatment plant is disposed of by:
1. Press filtration and dehydration:
Remove the water from the sludge through mechanical filtration or scew press dewatering machine and reduce the volume, thus reducing the cost of sludge treatment and disposal. Dewatered sludge can usually be used for soil improvement or landfill.
Sludge can be incinerated at high temperatures to decompose organic matter, reduce volume, kill pathogens, and at the same time generate energy (heat or electricity). However, incineration releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and requires high-temperature treatment, so waste gas and ash need to be strictly controlled and treated to avoid polluting the atmosphere.
Compost the sludge together with other organic waste, and use microorganisms to decompose organic matter and generate organic fertilizer. This method reduces the volume of sludge while producing organic fertilizer that is beneficial to the soil. Sewage sludge can be used in farmland to improve soil, provide nutrients, improve soil structure, and increase crop yields. However, careful monitoring is required to ensure that it does not cause environmental pollution.
Conventional landfill is to bury sludge in a specially designed landfill. However, landfilling takes up large amounts of land and, if not controlled, can lead to groundwater and soil contamination.
Environmentally friendly landfills use more advanced landfill technologies, such as controlling percolation and gas emissions, to reduce adverse impacts on the environment.
5. Wet treatment:
Use chemical methods to convert harmful substances in sludge into insoluble substances, and then sediment and separate them. This method typically requires higher chemical inputs.
6. Drying treatment:
By adding chemical curing agents, the moisture in the sludge is reduced, so that the sludge solidifies into lumps. This method reduces volume and facilitates transportation and landfilling. The following are some commonly used chemical solidifiers for sludge:
6.1 Calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime):
Calcium hydroxide is a commonly used solidifying agent that can neutralize the acidic substances in the sludge and promote the water in the sludge to condense and combine into a solid. Hydrated lime can also improve the stability of sludge and reduce the content of organic matter.
6.2 Iron oxide:
Iron oxide is a strong oxidant that can oxidize organic matter in sludge and solidify it into a solid. Iron oxide can also absorb heavy metal substances in sludge and reduce its impact on the environment.
6.3 Aluminum chloride:
Aluminum chloride is a commonly used flocculant that can coagulate and solidify when solidifying sludge. It helps the particulate matter in the sludge to condense into solids.
6.4 Iron sulfate:
Iron sulfate can combine with phosphorus in sludge to form stable iron-phosphorus compounds and reduce the release of phosphorus.
6.5 Aluminum sulfate:
Aluminum sulfate can chemically react with organic matter in sludge, solidify the organic matter, and solidify it into a stable solid.
6.6 Polymer curing agent:
Some polymers, such as polyacrylamide (PAM), have strong adsorption capacity and can condense particulate matter in sludge into massive solids.
7. Biological treatment:
The use of biological treatment technology, such as anaerobic digestion, can degrade organic matter, reduce volume and alleviate odor problems. Digested sludge can be used for soil improvement or landfill. Or vermicomposting, which degrades organic matter through the action of microorganisms.
8. Pyrolysis and gasification:
Heat the sludge to high temperatures to decompose it into gas and solid products. This method can generate energy, but it also requires high-temperature processing and exhaust emissions need to be controlled. The sludge is gasified and converted into combustible gas or liquid fuel for energy production. After pyrolysis or gasification, sludge can be prepared into biochar for soil improvement or other applications.
9. Hydrothermal method:
Treat sludge in high-temperature and high-pressure water to decompose organic matter into soluble products and solid waste. This method often requires special equipment and conditions.
10. Circular economy approach:
Promote resource recovery from sludge, such as extracting valuable substances (such as phosphorus, nitrogen, metals, etc.) and using them for other purposes, such as fertilizer production.
11. Wetland Treatment:
Some areas use wetlands to treat sludge. The plants and microorganisms in the wetlands help to decompose and process organic matter.
The selection of a suitable water treatment sludge disposal method usually depends on factors such as the nature, quantity, quality requirements, economic factors and environmental regulations of the sludge. Different regions and water treatment plants will choose the appropriate wastewater treatment sludge disposal method based on local regulations, technology level and resource availability. It is important to handle and dispose of wastewater treatment plant sludge in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner to minimize negative impact on the environment.